In 2016, Ohio became the twenty-sixth state to legalize the use of marijuana for certain specified medical conditions. Medical marijuana facilities and patient registries are expected to be fully operational in the near future. School districts should be aware of how the medical marijuana law might impact current policy and operations.
Overview of State Law
Under state law, individuals who suffer from any of twenty-one identified medical conditions (listed below) may register with the state to use medical marijuana. In addition to these twenty-one conditions, the state medical board may be petitioned to add other conditions to this list.
Qualifying Medical Conditions
|AIDS||Inflammatory bowel disease|
|Alzheimer’s disease||Multiple sclerosis|
|ALS (“Lou Gehrig’s disease”)||Pain that is chronic, severe, or intractable|
|Chronic traumatic encephalopathy||Posttraumatic stress disorder|
|Crohn’s disease||Sickle cell anemia|
|Epilepsy or seizure disorder||Spinal cord disease or injury|
|Glaucoma||Traumatic brain injury|
|Hepatitis C||Ulcerative colitis|
When registering with the state, an individual’s application must be accompanied by a licensed physician’s recommendation. Caregivers of medical marijuana users must also register with the state to avoid criminal prosecution for possession of medical marijuana and to assist registered patients. Medical marijuana may be used in oils, tinctures, plant material, edibles, patches, and vaporizers; however, smoking marijuana is prohibited.
Federal Laws and Regulations
Regardless of Ohio’s legalization of marijuana for medical purposes, marijuana is still a prohibited substance under federal law. The Americans with Disabilities Act requires that employers provide reasonable accommodations to employees with certain disabilities so that they may perform the requirements of their job; however, the ADA does not require employers to permit the use of medical marijuana as a reasonable accommodation. Similarly, the Family Medical Leave Act does not require employers to grant leave for employees so that they may obtain medical marijuana treatments for a serious health condition. Federal law does not interfere with an employer’s right to maintain a drug-free workplace, to implement a zero-tolerance drug policy, or to subject an employee to a drug test. Currently, pending federal legislation to enact the STATES Act would give states the freedom to decide how to legalize or regulate marijuana.
School District Employees
Ohio employers are not required to permit their employees to use medical marijuana at work and may continue to take adverse employment action against employees for their use of medical marijuana – even if the employee has a recommendation from a doctor for use and uses the marijuana outside of work hours. School districts may elect to make accommodations and modify policies to allow employees to use medical marijuana in some circumstances, although employees must continue to comply with state and federal regulations that prohibit use of drugs in safety-sensitive positions. School districts should be clear that employees may not be under the influence of marijuana when they are responsible for the safety or supervision of students and staff.
For workers’ compensation purposes, if an injury occurs at the workplace and the employee tests positive for marijuana, a rebuttable presumption arises that the use of marijuana was the cause of the injury, even if the employee has a recommendation for use from a doctor. To overcome this presumption, the employee must then demonstrate that the marijuana use did not factor into the cause of the injury. If unsuccessful, the employee would not be eligible to receive workers’ compensation benefits. Similarly, with unemployment compensation, an employee’s use of medical marijuana is just cause for termination, and no benefits would be provided to an employee in this scenario.
Ohio’s law does not prohibit an employer’s right to refuse to hire a job applicant because of use, possession, or distribution of medical marijuana.
A very small section of the Revised Code delineates the rights of patients who are registered with the state to use medical marijuana. Patient rights include the right to use and possess medical marijuana, up to a maximum of a 90-day supply; to possess any paraphernalia or accessories for the use of medical marijuana; and to avoid arrest or criminal prosecution for obtaining, using, or possessing medical marijuana and the necessary paraphernalia and accessories. Registered caregivers have the same rights to possess medical marijuana, paraphernalia, and accessories, but do not have the right to use medical marijuana. Operating a vehicle is prohibited while under the influence of medical marijuana. No minimum age is specified for patients to use medical marijuana.
Activities Prohibited Near Schools
No medical marijuana cultivator, processor, retail dispensary, or testing laboratory may be located within five hundred feet of a school, except for academic research institutes.